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2nd International Congress on Venereal Diseases , will be organized around the theme “Awareness for better future”

Venereal Diseases 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Venereal Diseases 2017

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Virology of Human Papillomavirus  is a double-stranded DNA, non-enveloped capsid virus. Their genome has three functional coding regions. Genome organization is similar for all papillomaviruses which has one strand transcribed. Epidemiology of HPV Infection causes warts, which are noncancerous skin growths known as cutaneous warts. Organization of life cycle can be divided into discrete phases. Initial infection requires access of infectious particles to cells in the basal layer, which for some HPV types is thought to require a break in the stratified epithelium. Toxicity and pathogenesis, Infection by specific HPV types has been linked to the development of cervical carcinoma. HPV infects epithelial cells that undergo terminal differentiation and so encode multiple mechanisms to override the normal regulation of differentiation to produce progeny virions.  The mechanism of HPV  is very complicated as it infects basal epithelial cells, which constitute the onlt cell layer in an epithelium that is actively dividing. The estimated global HPV prevalence was found to be higher rates in sub-Saharan Africa (24%), Eastern Europe (21%) and Latin America (16%).

  • Track 1-1HPV linked to cervical cancer
  • Track 1-2Epidermodysplasia verruciforms
  • Track 1-3Laryngeal papillomamatosis
  • Track 1-4HPV and Carcinoma
  • Track 1-5Detection and Treatment of HPV

HIV gradually attacks the immune system after an infection, after which the immunity is weakened, the virus destroys T-helper cell and replicates. Although, there are various strains of HIV, the major 2 types of strains that infect majority of population are

  • HIV-1: the most common type found worldwide
  • HIV-2: this is found mainly in Western Africa, with some cases in India and Europe.

HIV infection leads to AIDS, after a person’s immune system is too fragile, to fight off many infections, and develops when the HIV infection is very advanced. This is the last stage of HIV infection where the body can no longer defend itself and may develop various diseases, infections and if left untreated, death.

HIV is primarily transmission through body fluids, viz., blood (via transfusion), semen, vaginal and rectal secretions (through sex) , and breast milk (lactating mothers to babies).

  • Track 2-1HIV and Co-infections
  • Track 2-2Symptoms and Diagnosis
  • Track 2-3HIV risk and Prevention
  • Track 2-4Treaments and Management
  • Track 2-5Latest HIV/AIDS research
  • Track 2-6Pediatric HIV

Hepatitis is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. Hepatitis B is most commonly spread from mother to child at birth or through horizontal transmission by exposure to infected blood and various body fluids, as well as through saliva, menstrual, vaginal, and seminal fluids. Sexual transmission occurs, particularly in unvaccinated men or in heterosexual persons with multiple sex partners. Infection in adulthood leads to chronic hepatitis in less than 5% of cases. In addition, infection can occur during medical, surgical, dental procedures, tattooing, or through the use of razors and similar objects that can be contaminated with infected blood.

  • Track 3-1Transmission and symptoms
  • Track 3-2Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Track 3-3Prevention and Spreading of Virus
  • Track 3-4Techniques used in Treatment
  • Track 3-5Co-Infections of Hep-B

Genital herpes is one of the major sexually transmitted infections, caused by the herpes simplex virus and affects the skin or mucous membranes of the genitals.

There are 2 types of herpes simplex virus (HSV):

·  HSV-1 most often affects the mouth and lips and causes cold sores or fever blisters and can spread from the mouth to the genitals during oral sex.

· HSV type 2 (HSV-2) most often cause genital herpes and spreads through skin contact or through fluids from the mouth or genitals.

One can be infected with herpes if skin, vagina, penis, or mouth comes into contact with these parts of the infected individual. Genital HSV-2 infections are most commonly seen in women than men.

General symptoms includes, Decreased appetite, Fever, malaise, Muscle aches, swollen and tender lymph nodes in the groin,  small, painful blisters  with clear or straw-coloured fluid in the labia, vagina, cervix, around the anus, and on the thighs or buttocks, Penis, scrotum, Tongue, mouth, eyes, gums, lips, fingers, and other parts of the body.

  • Track 4-1Types: HSV - 1 & HSV - 2
  • Track 4-2Risk Factors
  • Track 4-3Complications
  • Track 4-4Tests and diagnosis
  • Track 4-5Treatment and Drugs
  • Track 4-6Prevention

Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by bacteria, contracted generally while having unprotected sex with someone whose STI status is uncertain. The treatment for chlamydia is single or multiple doses of oral antibiotics. Unprotected sex is the main route a chlamydia infection is spread. New-born babies can acquire chlamydia from their infected mother during birth. Most of the times, the symptoms go unnoticed. Some of the most common symptoms include burning sensation during urination, yellowish-green discharge from the penis or vagina, pain in the lower abdomen, pain in the testicles, painful sexual intercourse in women. 

  • Track 5-1Signs and Symptoms
  • Track 5-2pathophysiology and Diagnosis
  • Track 5-3Screening and Treatment
  • Track 5-4Prognosis of Chlamydia
  • Track 5-5Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)
  • Track 5-6Gonorrhoea in Women

Gonorrhoea is a STI caused by Neisseria gonorrhoea. And the bacteria are mainly found in the discharge of the penis and vaginal fluid. Gonorrhoea is easily passed between people through unprotected sex or by sharing vibrators or other sex toys that haven't been washed and covered with a new condom each time they're used. The bacteria infect the cervix, urethra, rectum, and is passed from a pregnant woman to her baby. Gonorrhoea isn't spread by hugging, kissing, sharing baths, sharing cutlery, swimming pools, toilet seats or by sharing towels as the bacteria can’t survive for long outside the body.

  • Track 6-1Causes and transmission
  • Track 6-2Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • Track 6-3Gonorrhoea in Men
  • Track 6-4Prevention and Medication

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that has very serious complications when left untreated, and the symptoms are divided into 3 stages - primary, secondary, latent, and late syphilis. You can get syphilis by direct contact with syphilis sore during sex. Syphilis can also be spread from an infected mother to her unborn baby. Symptoms of a syphilis can be confused by symptoms of other STDs, as it has many possible symptoms. The painless syphilis sore can be confused for an ingrown hair, zipper cut, or other seemingly harmless bump. The non-itchy body rash that develops during the second stage of syphilis can show up on the palms of your hands and soles of your feet, or sometimes all over your body. Syphilis can also affect the eye and can lead to permanent blindness. This is called ocular syphilis. You could also be infected with syphilis and have very mild symptoms or none at all.

 

  • Track 7-1Signs and Symptoms
  • Track 7-2Causes and Diagnosis
  • Track 7-3Treating and Curing Syphilis
  • Track 7-4Complications Associated with Syphilis

Untreated sexually transmitted diseases can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is a serious reproduction organ condition, in women. According to statistics, 1 in 8 women with a history of PID experience difficulties getting pregnant. One is likely to get PID, if they have an STD and do not get treated, or have multiple sex partners, or use an intrauterine device (IUD) for birth control methods. One should get examined immediately when experiencing pain in lower abdomen, have fever, or an malodorous unusual discharge from vagina, painful or bleeding intercourse, burning sensation while urinating, bleeding or spotting between periods.

  • Track 8-1Signs and Causes
  • Track 8-2Differential diagnosis
  • Track 8-3Tests for PID
  • Track 8-4Long-Term Complications of PID
  • Track 8-5Prevention

Trichomoniasis is a very common STD, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. After an infection with the parasite, the symptoms may or may not develop with about 70% of infected people having no signs or symptoms. Although, if they can range from mild they do show symptoms, it ranges to severe inflammation, men may feel itching or irritation inside the penis, burning after /ejaculation, or some other discharge from the penis, while women may have itching, burning, redness or soreness of the genitals, discomfort with urination, or a clear, white, yellowish-greenish fluid discharge with bad odour. 

  • Track 9-1Molluscum contagiosum
  • Track 9-2Nongonococcal urethritis:
  • Track 9-3Trichomoniasis
  • Track 9-4Mucopurulent Cervicitis
  • Track 9-5Bacterial Vaginosis

The bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi , attacks a tissue and produces an open sore, referred to as a chancroid or ulcer near to the external reproductive organs. The ulcer could bleed or produce a contagious fluid that can spread bacteria during intercourse or may also spread from skin-to-skin contact with an infected person. It’s a type of venereal disease- which is transmitted through sexual contact.

Symptoms include- varied sizes of painful ulcers, having a soft centre with grey to yellowish colour and defined, or sharp, edges which bleed easily when touched or during sexual intercourse Swelling in the groin and swollen lymph nodes that can break through the skin and oozes pus. 

  • Track 10-1Causes and Pathogenesis
  • Track 10-2Clinical Variants in Diagnosis
  • Track 10-3Treatments and Complications
  • Track 10-4Prevention and Prognosis

Molluscum contagiosum is a skin infection caused by Molluscum contagiosum virus and produces benign raised lesions, or bumps, on the upper layers of the skin and is spread through direct contact with the lesion of an infected person or by contact with a contaminated object, such as a towel or any other piece of clothing.

Nongonococcal urethritis:

NGU (nongonococcal urethritis) is an infection of the urethra caused by microbes other than gonorrhoea; these microbes include, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes simplex virus, Adenovirus, Haemophilus vaginalis, Mycoplasm genitalium. NGU can be transmitted by sexual, non-sexual and perinatal methods.

Trichomoniasis:

Trichomoniasis is a very common STD, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. After an infection with the parasite, the symptoms may or may not develop with about 70% of infected people having no signs or symptoms. Although, if they can range from mild they do show symptoms, it ranges to severe inflammation, men may feel itching or irritation inside the penis, burning after /ejaculation, or some other discharge from the penis, while women may have itching, burning, redness or soreness of the genitals, discomfort with urination, or a clear, white, yellowish-greenish fluid discharge with bad odour.

Mucopurulent Cervicitis:

Mucopurulent Cervicitis (MPC) is an STI of the cervix and is often, a result of chlamydia and gonorrhoea. Symptoms include, vaginal discharge, bleeding between periods or after sex, abdominal pain and pain during or after vaginal sex.

Bacterial Vaginosis:

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is caused when a particular type of bacteria creates imbalance by either an increase in their number or by decrease. The exact cause is not yet known but it is linked to the imbalance of the pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in the vagina. Symptoms include thin white or grey vaginal discharge with bad odour, pain and itching, or burning in the vagina.

  • Track 11-1Molluscum contagiosum
  • Track 11-2Nongonococcal urethritis
  • Track 11-3Trichomoniasis
  • Track 11-4Mucopurulent Cervicitis
  • Track 11-5Bacterial Vaginosis

Vaccines, contain a attenuated, killed or weakened pathogenic microbe, that causes the disease. A vaccine stimulates your immune system to produce antibodies, to develop immunity to that disease without getting infected. Although, both antibiotics and vaccines are used to fight germs, their mode of action is different- vaccines are used to prevent disease, while antibiotics are used to treat diseases. There are various types of vaccines, viz., Live, attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, subunit vaccines, toxoid vaccines, conjugate vaccines, DNA vaccines and recombinant vector vaccines. 

  • Track 12-1Antibiotics and vaccines
  • Track 12-2Edible Vaccines
  • Track 12-3Vaccines Research and Development
  • Track 12-4Delivery Technologies
  • Track 12-5Vaccine safety
  • Track 12-6Clinical studies and field trials
  • Track 12-7Production / manufacturing
  • Track 12-8New Vaccines
  • Track 12-9Self-Examination- Importance and Limitations

There are numerous foundations that work on the betterment on the society and help those suffering from STDs and STIs and other genital infections’ mentally and emotionally. These foundations help in creating awareness among masses especially the youngsters in the age-group of 16-30 years of age. These foundations help in the regular testing, counselling and treatment of the patients, helping them accept their condition and face the social stigma associated with the infections and discrimination. 

  • Track 13-1Awareness by Foundations
  • Track 13-2General Genital Health
  • Track 13-3Normal Flora of Genitals
  • Track 13-4Counselling of patients
  • Track 13-5False Shame and Mental-Emotional Health